Who

Here you’ll find a list of everyone mentioned in the podcast. Names will appear as each episode is published.

Gods

Arhanitum

goddess worshipped at Tell Harmal. EPISODE 1

Asalluhi

Another name for the god Marduk. Son of Ea. EPISODE 4

Bel-gashir

local god of Tell Harmal. EPISODE 1

Ea

God of wisdom. Associated with the fourth string of the lyre in Babylonian. Akkadian name for Enki. EPISODE 3

Enki

God of wisdom. In anti-demon magic, Marduk seeks help from his father, Enki. Sumerian name for Ea. EPISODE 4

Enlil

Chief deity of the Sumerian pantheon. Holder of the Tablet of Destinies. EPISODE 7

Gula

Goddess of healing. EPISODE 9

Haya

Husband of Nisaba. EPISODE 1

Ishum

A benevolent god. EPISODE 21

Mami

Goddess who mixes clay from the steppe with blood from a god to form the first human being. Character in Atra(m)hasis Epic. EPISODE 9

Marduk

Chief deity of the Babylonian pantheon. Deity who helped exorcists fight demons, acting as an intermediary to Ea. EPISODE 4, EPISODE 21

Ningirsu

Deity of Lagash. EPISODE 7

Ninurta

Warrior god. Son of Enlil. Defeated Anzu. EPISODE 7

Nisaba

Goddess of writing. EPISODE 1

Shamash

Sun-god. God of justice. Akkadian name of Sumerian Utu. EPISODE 1. EPISODE 10. EPISODE 16

Utu

Sun-god. God of justice. Sumerian name of Akkadian Shamash. EPISODE 10

Monsters, demons and heroes

alad

A demon, usually benevolent. Sumerian name of the Akkadian shedu. EPISODE 4

Anzu

Monster with an eagle’s body and a lion’s head. Personification of thunder. EPISODE 7

Ardat lili

A malevolent female demon. She was a woman who died unmarried. She visits as night, seeking male victims to act as a husband. EPISODE 4

Asag

Demon. EPISODE 4

Atrahasis

Mythical hero of the flood myth. EPISODE 4

Gilgamesh

Legendary king of Uruk. Hero of the Gilgamesh Epic. EPISODE 1

hallulayah

Female demon. EPISODE 21

Humbaba / Huwawa

Guardian of the cedar forest in the Gilgamesh Epic. EPISODE 4

lama

A demon, usually benevolent. EPISODE 4

Lamashtu

A malevolent female demon. She targets pregnant women and young children. EPISODE 4

Luhushshu

A demon. EPISODE 21

Pazuzu

A benevolent male demon. He drives off Lamashtu. Pregnant women would wear a protective amulet in the shape of his head. Pazuzu appears at the beginning of the movie The Exorcist, and is the evil demon who possesses the young girl. This is not how he was understood in ancient Iraq. EPISODE 4

sebettu

“The seven”. A group of 7 chaotic demons that threaten the established order of the world. EPISODE 4

shedu

A demon, usually benevolent. Akkadian name of the Sumerian alad. EPISODE 4

udug

A demon, as well as a general name for demon. The udug is Usually malevolent, although it can be benevolent. EPISODE 4

People

Ancient world

Abi-eshuh

Ruler of Babylon during the early second millennium BC. EPISODE 5

Ammi-ditana

Ruler of Babylon during the early second millennium BC. EPISODE 5

Ashurbanipal

King of Assyria in 7th century BC. EPISODE 17, EPISODE 21

Darius the Great

Ruler of the Persian “Achaemenid” empire. Reigned 522-486 BC. Under Darius, Persian rule stretched from India as far west as Eastern Europe, engulfing the ancient Middle East. EPISODE 8

Ekur-zakir

A well-known temple exorcist from Uruk. EPISODE 21

Enki-mansum

“Enki has given (wisdom)”: fictional character in a Sumerian debate poem. EPISODE 2

Gaumata

A magus (a member of a priestly caste) who impersonated a dead prince (called Bardiya or Smerdis) to try and claim the Persian throne in 522 BC. Defeated by Darius. EPISODE 8

Girine-ishag

“His foot is beautiful”. Fictional scribe in a Sumerian debate poem. Shame about his hand. Or was it his behaviour that was beautiful? EPISODE 2

Hammurabi

King of Babylon, 18th century BC. EPISODE 1. EPISODE 5. EPISODE 11. EPISODE 16, EPISODE 17

Ishtar-shum-eresh

7th century BC scribe who writes to the king of Assyria. EPISODE 21

Jonah

Biblical prophet. EPISODE 13

Nabu-zuqup-kenu

A well-known Assyrian scholar from Kalhu. EPISODE 21

Nebuchadnezzar (II)

Ruler of Babylon in 7th century BC. EPISODE 5

Ninkuzu

“The lady is wise”. Fictional female character in Sumerian debate poem “Two Women B”. EPISODE 2

Ipiq-Adad (II)

King of Eshnunna. Established the kingdom as a major power. EPISODE 1

Plato

Greek philosopher. EPISODE 12

Pu’abi

Queen of Ur during the mid-third millennium BC. EPISODE 10

Samsu-iluna

Ruler of Babylon during the early second millennium BC. EPISODE 5

Sargon II

Ruler of Assyria 722-705 BC. EPISODE 14

Sargon of Akkad

Ruler of Akkad and the Akkadian empire c. 2300 BC. EPISODE 10

Sennacherib

King of Assyria. EPISODE 13

Sin-abushu

King of Eshnunna. EPISODE 1

Sin-sharra-ishkun

King of Assyria. EPISODE 13

Skunha

Scythian ruler defeated by Darius. EPISODE 8

Smerdis

Persian prince who was impersonated by the usurper, Gaumata. EPISODE 8

Modern world

Basima Jalil Abed

Iraqi assyriologist. Published texts from Tell Harmal. EPISODE 1

Khalid al-A’dami

Iraqi assyriologist. Published texts from Tell Harmal. EPISODE 1

Yasmin Abdel Karim

Dean of the Faculty of Archaeology, University of Mosul. EPISODE 13

Selim Adalı

Turkish assyriologist. Guest on EPISODE 16

Abdulkarim Abdullah Ahmed

Iraqi assyriologist. Published texts from Tell Harmal. EPISODE 1

Qusay Kamal Al-Din Al-Ahmadi

President of the University of Mosul. EPISODE 13

Hannah Arendt

American political theorist. EPISODE 15

Abdul Majid Arfaee

Iranian assyriologist. EPISODE 8

Annie Attia

French ophthalmologist and assyriologist. EPISODE 17

Heather Baker

British archaeologist and assyriologist. Guest on EPISODE 23

Taha Baqir

Iraqi archaeologist and assyriologist. Former curator of the Iraq Museum. Famous as the author of an Arabic translation of the Epic of Gilgamesh. Excavator of Tell Harmal. Published texts from Tell Harmal. EPISODE 1

Gojko Barjamovic

Danish assyriologist. Guest on EPISODE 12

Gertrude Bell

British traveller, political officer. Played a key role in the British mandate administration in Iraq in 1920s. EPISODE 6

Bedri Bey

Ottoman government representative in Iraq in the late 19th century. EPISODE 16

Osman Hamdi Bey

Director of the Istanbul Archaeological Museums. EPISODE 16

Dinçer Cefer

Curator in the cuneiform archive of the Istanbul Archaeological Museums. EPISODE 16

Muazzez İlmiye Çığ

Author of Turkish translation of the Gilgamesh Epic. EPISODE 16

Paul Collins

British museum curator at the Ashmolean, UK. Guest on EPISODE 6

Rients de Boer

Dutch assyriologist. Expert on Tell Abu Antiq. Guest on EPISODE 5

Maria de Jong Ellis

American assyriologist. Published texts from Tell Harmal. EPISODE 1

Richard Dumbrill

UK-based musicologist. Expert on Mesopotamian music. Guest on EPISODE 3

Teoman Duralı

Author of Turkish translation of the Gilgamesh Epic. EPISODE 16

Dr. Anmar Abdul Fadhil

Iraqi Assyriologist at the University of Baghdad. EPISODE 18

Saad Salman Fahad

Iraqi assyriologist. Published texts from Tell Harmal. EPISODE 1

Abdel-Hadi al-Fouadi

Iraqi assyriologist. Published texts from Tell Harmal. EPISODE 1

Sally Freedman

American assyriologist. EPISODE 21

Paul Garelli

French assyriologist. EPISODE 12

Mark Geller

British assyriologist. EPISODE 17

Ilgi Gerçek

Turkish assyriologist. Guest on EPISODE 16

Albrecht Goetze

German-American assyriologist. Published texts from Tell Harmal. EPISODE 1

Carlos Gonçalves

Brazilian historian of science. Guest on EPISODE 11

Ariana Grande

Popular singer. EPISODE 15

Francoise Grillot-Susini

French assyriologist. EPISODE 8

Georg Friedrich Grotefend

German philologist. Famous for his work deciphering cuneiform. EPISODE 8

Selim Halaf

Director of Excavations, Iraq. EPISODE 13

Tim Harrison

Canadian archaeologist. EPISODE 13

David Hogarth

British archaeologist. Former Keeper of the Ashmolean. EPISODE 6

Laith Majid Hussein

Iraqi assyriologist and archaeologist. Expert on Tell Harmal. Guest on EPISODE 1

Ridha al-Hashimi

Iraqi assyriologist. Published texts from Tell Harmal. EPISODE 1

Jacob Jawdat

Iraqi assyriologist and archaeologist. Expert on Tell Abu Antiq. Guest on EPISODE 5

Enrique Jiménez

Spanish assyriologist. EPISODE 16, EPISODE 18

Jaafar Jotheri

Iraqi geo-archaeologist. EPISODE 22

Ahmed Jumaili

Iraqi assyriologist. EPISODE 13

Leonard William King

British assyriologist. EPISODE 8

Gina Konstantopoulos

American assyriologist. Expert on demons. Guest on EPISODE 4

Fikri Kulakoğlu

Turkish archaeologist. EPISODE 12

Sevin Kutlu

Author of Turkish translation of the Gilgamesh Epic. EPISODE 16

T.E. Lawrence

“Lawrence of Arabia”. British officer, author. EPISODE 6, EPISODE 13

Seton Lloyd

British archaeologist. EPISODE 1

Sait Maden

Author of Turkish translation of the Gilgamesh Epic. EPISODE 16

Ahmad Hamid Majeed

Iraqi assyriologist. Published texts from Tell Harmal. EPISODE 1

Florence Malbran-Labat

French assyriologist. EPISODE 8

Max Mallowan

British archaeologist. EPISODE 13

Nicolo Marchetti

Italian archaeologist. Guest on EPISODE 13

Jean-Luc Martinez

President Director of the Musée du Louvre. EPISODE 24

Paolo Matthiae

Italian archaeologist. EPISODE 13

Jana Matuszak

German assyriologist. Expert on Sumerian literature. Guest on EPISODE 2

Barry McGuire

Folk singer. Singer of 1965 protest song “on the eve of destruction”. EPISODE 13

Menshed Mutlaq Menshed

Iraqi assyriologist. Published texts from Tell Harmal. EPISODE 1

Lin-Manuel Miranda

Composer of Hamilton. EPISODE 15

Catherine Mittermayer

Swiss assyriologist. EPISODE 21

Ahmad Kamil Muhammed

Iraqi assyriologist. Published texts from Tell Harmal. EPISODE 1

Mr. Murray

Inspirational history teacher. EPISODE 15

Hassan Nadhem

Minister of Culture, Iraq, 2020. EPISODE 13

Daniel Nicky

“Mr Nicky”. American educator and musician. Guest on EPISODE 15

Carsten Niebuhr

German scholar who worked for a Danish expedition exploring and documenting the Middle East. EPISODE 8

Edwin Norris

British assyriologist. EPISODE 8

Müge Özcan

Curator in the cuneiform archive of the Istanbul Archaeological Museums. EPISODE 16

Saber Amiri Parian

Independent scholar based in Iran. Guest on EPISODE 8

Sara Pizzimenti

Italian archaeologist. EPISODE 13

Victor Place

French archaeologist, excavator of Khorsabad. EPISODE 24

Karen Radner

Austrian assyriologist. EPISODE 16

Muzaffer Ramazanoğlu

Author of Turkish translation of the Gilgamesh Epic. EPISODE 16

Qais Rashid

Former Chair of SBAH, Iraq. EPISODE 13

Hormuzd Rassam

Iraqi archaeologist. EPISODE 16

Henry Creswicke Rawlinson

British assyriologist. Famous for his work deciphering cuneiform. EPISODE 8

Eleanor Robson

British historian. Professor at UCL. Director of Nahrein Network. EPISODE 6

Licia Romano

Italian archaeologist. Guest on EPISODE 10.

Elisa Roẞberger

German archaeologist. Guest on EPISODE 9.

Zaid Ghazi Saadallah

Director of Mosul museum. EPISODE 24

Mohammed Sabri

Iraqi archaeologist. EPISODE 13

Khalid Salim

Iraqi assyriologist. EPISODE 13

N.K. Sandars

British archaeologist. EPISODE 16

Jean-Vincent Scheil

French assyriologist. EPISODE 16

Dahlia Shehata

German assyriologist. Guest on EPISODE 7.

Stephen Simmons

American assyriologist. Published texts from Tell Harmal. EPISODE 1

Michael Streck

German assyriologist. EPISODE 12

Orhan Suda

Author of Turkish translation of the Gilgamesh Epic. EPISODE 16

Amir Suleiman

Iraqi assyriologist. Published texts from Tell Harmal. EPISODE 1, EPISODE 13

Sümeraslan

“Lion (of) Sumer”. Surname of Ilgi Gerçek’s paternal grandmother. The name was acquired by my paternal great-grandfather, Ahmet Hamdi, who belonged to the Circassian community in Egypt that was resettled in various Ottoman territories in the 19th century. The name Sümer is common among the Circassian-Turkish communities, likely due to the idea — popular in the early Republic — that various Caucasian communities were related to the “Sumerians.”). EPISODE 16

Rayyane Tabet

Contemporary Lebanese artist. EPISODE 14

Ali Hazeem Thanoon

Chief of the Mosul branch of SBAH, 2020. EPISODE 13

Reginald Campbell Thompson

British archaeologist and assyriologist. EPISODE 8, EPISODE 17

Meghan Trainor

Popular singer. EPISODE 15

Gabriel Tranchand

Photographer on the French expedition to Asssyria, 1840s. EPISODE 24

Aaron Tugendhaft

Guest on EPISODE 14

Francois Vallat

French assyriologist. EPISODE 8

Johannes (Jan) Jacobus van Dijk

Dutch assyriologist. Published texts from Tell Harmal. EPISODE 1

Franz Wiggermann

Dutch assyriologist well-known for research on supernatural creatures. EPISODE 4

Tony Wilkinson

British archaeologist. Specialist in landscape archaeology. EPISODE 5, EPISODE 22

Sir Leonard Woolley

British archaeologist. Famous as the excavator of Ur. EPISODE 12

Groups

Anatolians

Name given to the people who lived in what is now Turkey. EPISODE 12

Dani

A people in New Guinea. EPISODE 19

Judeans

People from the kingdom of Judah.

Kassites

Group based in western Iran. Ruling dynasty of Babylon in second millennium BC.

Phoenicians

Culture originating on the eastern Mediterranean coast. EPISODE 24