A – Z

This is a handy glossary of all the terms used on Thin End of the Wedge. I’ve explained each term very briefly here. For more detail, I’ve given you two options. Clicking on the term itself [this feature is coming soon] takes you to the page on this site where that term is explained. Clicking on the links after the term takes you to Wikipedia. The quality of the information there is patchy, unfortunately. You should treat it with care. It usually gives you the gist OK. Some of the details might be unreliable, though.

antiq: THING: modern name for cuneiform tablets used by people living near the site of the site of Tell Abu Antiq.

Abbasid period: TIME: early Islamic period, named after a dynasty based in Iraq. C. 750-1258. EPISODE 3

Abi-eshuh: PERSON: Ruler of Babylon during the early second millennium BC. EPISODE 5

Basima Jalil Abed: PERSON: Iraqi assyriologist. EPISODE 1

Abu Habbah: PLACE: site of ancient Sippar. EPISODE 16

Abu Tbeirah: PLACE: site on southern Iraq. Remains of a Sumerian town. EPISODE 10, EPISODE 22

ACAWAI-CS: THING: Annotated Corpus of Ancient West Asian Imagery-Cylinder Seals. Project run by Elisa Rossberger. EPISODE 9

Khalid al-A’dami: PERSON: Iraqi assyriologist. EPISODE 1

Selim Adalı: PERSON: Turkish assyriologist. Guest on EPISODE 16

Abdulkarim Abdullah Ahmed: PERSON: Iraqi assyriologist. EPISODE 1

Qusay Kamal Al-Din Al-Ahmadi: PERSON: President of the University of Mosul. EPISODE 13

Akkad: PLACE: northern part of southern Iraq

Alad: CREATURE: a demon, usually benevolent. EPISODE 4

Aliph: THING: organisation to protect cultural heritage in conflict zones. EPISODE 24

Al-Muhannawiyah: PLACE: modern town near Tell Abu Antiq. EPISODE 5

Ammi-ditana: PERSON: Ruler of Babylon during the early second millennium BC. EPISODE 5

Anatolians: GROUP: name given to the people who lived in what is now Turkey. EPISODE 12

Anbar: REGION: province in western Iraq. EPISODE 22

Anthropocene: TIME: proposed era to describe the time when human activity has significantly impacted the planet. EPISODE 13

Anzu: CREATURE: Monster with an eagle’s body and a lion’s head. Personification of thunder. EPISODE 7

Araldite 2020: THING: An epoxy resin that can be used to glue fragments of objects to each other. EPISODE 18

Archaic: TIME: 3200-2900 BC

ArcGIS: THING: software for working with maps. EPISODE 22

archaeomusicology: THING: the study of ancient music. EPISODE 3

Ardat lili: CREATURE: a demon, malevolent. EPISODE 4

Hannah Arendt: PERSON: American political theorist. EPISODE 15

Abdul Majid Arfaee: PERSON: Iranian assyriologist. EPISODE 8

Arhanitum: DEITY: goddess worshipped at Tell Harmal. EPISODE 1

Asag: CREATURE: demon. EPISODE 4

Asalluhi: DEITY: another name for the god Marduk. EPISODE 4

ashipu: THING: “exorcist”. A type of doctor who drive off demons and helped treat the problems they caused. EPISODE 4, EPISODE 4

Ashur/Assur: PLACE: city in northern Iraq. EPISODE 4. EPISODE 12. EPISODE 16, EPISODE 17, EPISODE 19, EPISODE 20, EPISODE 21

Ashurbanipal: PERSON: King of Assyria in 7th century BC. EPISODE 17, EPISODE 21

Assyria: PLACE: northern Iraq

Asu: THING: healthcare professional who specialised in physical remedies. EPISODE 4

Atrahasis: PERSON: mythical hero of the flood myth. EPISODE 4

Atra(m)hasis Epic: THING: literary text about the flood and the creation of Man. EPISODE 9

Annie Attia: PERSON: French ophthalmologist and assyriologist. EPISODE 17

Avestan: THING: a language used in ancient Persia (for the sacred texts of Zoroastrianism). EPISODE 8

BabMed: THING: Project investigating Babylonian medicine. EPISODE 17

Babylon: PLACE: city in Iraq

Babylonia: PLACE: area in central/southern Iraq

Bagastan: PLACE: ancient name for Behistun. EPISODE 8

Bagastanon: PLACE: ancient Greek name for Behistun. EPISODE 8

Heather Baker: PERSON: British archaeologist and assyriologist. Guest on EPISODE 23

balbale: THING: type of Sumerian musical work. EPISODE 3

Gojko Barjamovic: PERSON: Danish assyriologist. Guest on EPISODE 12

Basra: PLACE: city in southern Iraq. Home to a new museum. EPISODE 6

Bel-gashir: DEITY: local god of Tell Harmal

Behistun: PLACE: site of a monument commemorating the victories of Darius the Great. The trilingual inscription provided the key to the decipherment of cuneiform. EPISODE 8

Gertrude Bell: PERSON: British traveller, political officer. Played a key role in the British mandate administration in Iraq in 1920s. EPISODE 6

Bedri Bey: PERSON: Ottoman government representative in Iraq in the late 19th century. EPISODE 16

Osman Hamdi Bey: PERSON: Director of the Istanbul Archaeological Museums. EPISODE 16

BIN SHAR DADME: THING: “The son of the king of all the habitations”. Name given to the god Ninurta. EPISODE 7

Bisitun: PLACE: alternate name for Behistun. “Place without columns”. EPISODE 8

Bisutun: PLACE: alternate name for Behistun. EPISODE 8

Böhl collection: THING: De Liagre Böhl collection. Collection in Leiden of objects from the ancient Middle East. Curated by the Netherlands Institute for the Near East, Leiden University. EPISODE 18

brightness: THING: Property of colour. How light or dark something is. EPISODE 19

British Institute for the Study of Iraq (BISI): THING: charity focusing on research and education on Iraq. EPISODE 6

bultu latku: THING: “tested cures” in Mesopotamian medicine. EPISODE 17

calotype: early type of photograph. EPISODE 24

Carchemish: PLACE: site on Turkish/Syrian border. EPISODE 13

catchline: THING: a line of text telling the reader which tablet to read next. EPISODE 21

Dinçer Cefer: PERSON: Curator in the cuneiform archive of the Istanbul Archaeological Museums. EPISODE 16

Centre de recherche et de restauration des musées de France: THING: “The Centre for Research and Restoration of the Museums of France”. The French national research centre responsible for the documentation and conservation of museum collections. EPISODE 24

Charax (Spasinou): PLACE: city in southern Iraq. EPISODE 22

Muazzez İlmiye Çığ: PERSON: author of Turkish translation of the Gilgamesh Epic. EPISODE 16

colatoria: THING: room where corpses would be placed for drying before final burial. Used in Italy until 19th century. EPISODE 10

Collège de France: THING: prestigious teaching and research establishment in Paris. EPISODE 24

Paul Collins: PERSON: museum curator at the Ashmolean, UK. Guest on EPISODE 6

colophon: THING: scribal note added at the end of a tablet. EPISODE 21

Corona: THING: satellite images deriving from a US reconnaissance programme in the 1950s. EPISODE 22

Cosmoloid H 80: THING: a micro-crystalline wax that can be used to glue fragments of objects to each other. EPISODE 18

cuneiform: THING: writing system used in the ancient Middle East

Dani: GROUP: A people in New Guinea. EPISODE 19

Darius the Great: PERSON: ruler of the Persian “Achaemenid” empire. Reigned 522-486 BC. Under Darius, Persian rule stretched from India as far west as Eastern Europe,engulfing the ancient Middle East. EPISODE 8

Rients de Boer: PERSON: guest on EPISODE 5

Maria de Jong Ellis: PERSON: American assyriologist. EPISODE 1

Dilmun: PLACE: port on the Persian Gulf, in what is today Bahrain. EPISODE 12

The Diviners Manual: THING: an ancient handbook explaining the diviner’s craft. EPISODE 21

Diwaniyah: PLACE: area in southern Iraq. EPISODE 5

Diyala: PLACE: region in central Iraq. Location of Eshnunna. EPISODE 1, EPISODE 22

DUB NAM TAR: THING: Sumerian “Tablet of Destinies”. See Tablet of Destinies. EPISODE 7

Richard Dumbrill: PERSON: guest on EPISODE 3

Teoman Duralı: PERSON: author of Turkish translation of the Gilgamesh Epic. EPISODE 16

Ea: DEITY: associated with the fourth string in Babylonian. Akkadian name of Enki. EPISODE 3

Early Dynastic: TIME: 2900-2300 BC

earth pigments: THING: pigments that you can get from rocks and stones and clay. EPISODE 19

Ebla: PLACE: site in Syria. EPISODE 13

Ecbatana: PLACE: important city in ancient Iran. Capital of the Median empire. Key centre in the Persian empire. Modern Hamadan. EPISODE 8

EDUU: THING: EU-funded project aiming to enhance Iraqi Cultural Heritage. EPISODE 13

Egyptian blue: THING: A synthetically produced blue pigment. Made by melting silica, alkali, and copper. EPISODE 19

Ekur-zakir: PERSON: a well-known temple exorcist from Uruk. EPISODE 21

Elam: PLACE: western Iran

Electronic Babylonian Literature project: THING: project aimed at reconstructing Babylonian literature. EPISODE 16, EPISODE 21

El Muhattap: THING: small Turkish collection of cuneiform texts from Sippar. EPISODE 16

Emar: PLACE: city on the middle Euphrates, in what is today Syria. EPISODE 12

Emulsifier: THING: Substance used to give paint volume. EPISODE 19

Enki: DEITY: Sumerian god of wisdom. Source of knowledge of how to fight demons. Sumerian name of Ea. EPISODE 4

Enki-mansum: PERSON: fictional character in Sumerian literature. EPISODE 2

Enlil: DEITY: Chief deity of the Sumerian pantheon. Holder of the Tablet of Destinies. EPISODE 7

Eridu: PLACE: city in southern Iraq. EPISODE 22

Eshnunna: PLACE: city in central Iraq. Kingdom during the Old Babylonian period. EPISODE 1

Eti: THING: old Turkish name for the Hittites. A famous food brand in Turkey. EPISODE 16

Euclid’s Elements: THING: mathematical text from Egypt during a period of Greek rule, c. 300 BC. EPISODE 11

Euphrates: RIVER: one of the two main rivers in Iraq. EPISODE 22

Anmar Abdul Fadhil: PERSON: Iraqi Assyriologist at the University of Baghdad. EPISODE 18

Saad Salman Fahad: PERSON: Iraqi assyriologist. EPISODE 1

First Dynasty of Babylon: THING: The dynasty based in Babylon, ruling in the early second millennium BC. Including Hammurabi.

Abdel-Hadi al-Fouadi: PERSON: Iraqi assyriologist. EPISODE 1

Sally Freedman: PERSON: American assyriologist. EPISODE 21

Paul Garelli: PERSON: French assyriologist. EPISODE 12

Gaumata: PERSON: a magus (a member of a priestly caste) who impersonated a dead prince (called Bardiya or Smerdis) to try and claim the Persian throne in 522 BC. Defeated by Darius. EPISODE 8

Mark Geller: PERSON: British assyriologist. EPISODE 17

Ilgi Gerçek: PERSON: Turkish assyriologist. Guest on EPISODE 16

Gilgamesh: PERSON: legendary ruler of Uruk. Hero of the Epic of Gilgamesh. EPISODE 1. EPISODE 2

Girine-ishag: PERSON: “his foot is beautiful”. Fictional scribe in a Sumerian debate poem. Shame about his hand. Or was it his behaviour that was beautiful? EPISODE 2

Girsu: PLACE: city in southern Iraq. EPISODE 22

GISH HUR: THING: Sumerian term referring to the plans for the world. See Tablet of Destinies. EPISODE 7

Albrecht Goetze: PERSON: German-American assyriologist. EPISODE 1

Carlos Gonçalves: PERSON: Brazilian historian of science. Guest on EPISODE 11

Google Earth: THING: software presenting the earth using satellite images. EPISODE 22

Grand Louvre: THING: project in 1980s and 1990s to enlarge the Louvre. EPISODE 24

Ariana Grande: PERSON: popular singer. EPISODE 15

The Great Transformation: THING: book by Karl Polanyi. EPISODE 20

Georg Friedrich Grotefend: PERSON: German philologist. Famous for his work deciphering cuneiform. EPISODE 8

Francoise Grillot-Susini: PERSON: French assyriologist. EPISODE 8

de Gruyter: PERSON: publishing company based in Germany. EPISODE 2

Gula: DEITY: goddess of healing. EPISODE 9

gum Arabic: THING: A natural gum typically made from tree sap. Used to control viscosity. EPISODE 19

Selim Halaf: PERSON: Director of Excavations, Iraq. EPISODE 13

hallulayah: THING: female demon. EPISODE 21

Hamilton: THING: Broadway musical. EPISODE 15

Hammurabi: PERSON: King of Babylon, 18th century BC

hamshu: THING: name of the fifth string in Babylonian. EPISODE 3

Hamurabi: THING: a pastry shop in Istanbul. hamur “dough” + abi “brother” https://hamurabi.com.tr. EPISODE 16

Hanunoo: THING: Language spoken in the Philippines. EPISODE 19

Tim Harrison: PERSON: Canadian archaeologist. EPISODE 13

Ridha al-Hashimi: PERSON: Iraqi assyriologist. EPISODE 1

Hatra: PLACE: site in the Nineveh Governorate, Iraq. EPISODE 13

Hattusa: PLACE: capital of the Hittites. Turkey. EPISODE 16, EPISODE 17

Haya: DEITY: husband of Nisaba. EPISODE 1

hedgewitch: THING: someone who performs magic without formal training. EPISODE 4

heptatonic system: THING: a system of music that uses 7 notes. EPISODE 3

heterophonic: THING: performance of music with simultaneous variation of a melodic line. EPISODE 3

Hilprecht collection: THING: Collection in Jena of objects from the ancient Middle East. EPISODE 18

Hippocratic corpus: THING: A collection of early Greek medical texts. EPISODE 17

David Hogarth: PERSON: British archaeologist. Former Keeper of the Ashmolean. EPISODE 6

hue: THING: Property of colour. Whether something is red or green, for example. EPISODE 19

Humbaba: CREATURE: guardian of the cedar forest in the Gilgamesh Epic. EPISODE 4

humectant: THING: Substance used to keep paint moist. EPISODE 19

Laith Majid Hussein: PERSON: guest on EPISODE 3

ICONEA: THING: International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology. EPISODE 3

Ilkum: THING: corvee duty imposed by the kings of Babylon. EPISODE 5

Ipiq-Adad (II): PERSON: ruler of Eshnunna. Established the kingdom as a great power. EPISODE 1

Iraq Museum: THING: National museum of Iraq, in Baghdad. EPISODE 18

Ishtar-shum-eresh: PERSON: 7th century BC scribe who writes to the king of Assyria. EPISODE 21

Ishum: DEITY: a benevolent god. EPISODE 21

Istanbul Sippar Project: THING: project to digitise the Sippar collections of the Istanbul Archaeological Museums. EPISODE 16

Jacob Jawdat: PERSON: assyriologist/archaeologist in Iraq’s State Board of Antiquities and Heritage. Guest on EPISODE 5

jins/ajnas: THING: pitches used to make a maqam in Arabic music. EPISODE 3

Jericho: PLACE: site in West Bank Palestine. EPISODE 13

Enrique Jiménez: PERSON: Spanish assyriologist. EPISODE 16, EPISODE 18

Jonah: PERSON: biblical prophet. Said to have been buried at Nineveh. EPISODE 13

Jaafra Jotheri: PERSON: Iraqi geo-archaeologist. EPISODE 22

Judeans: PEOPLE: People from the kingdom of Judah.

Ahmed Jumaili: PERSON: Iraqi assyriologist. EPISODE 13

kaimakam: THING: an administrative region. EPISODE 13

Kanesh: PLACE: site of the main trading hub of the Old Assyrian network in Turkey. Ancient name for modern Kültepe. EPISODE 12, EPISODE 16, EPISODE 20

Yasmin Abdel Karim: PERSON: Dean of the Faculty of Archaeology, University of Mosul. EPISODE 13

Kaskal: THING: academic journal. EPISODE 1

Kassites: PEOPLE: group based in western Iran. Ruling dynasty of Babylon in second millennium BC.

Kermanshah: PLACE: province in Iran. Home to Behistun. EPISODE 8

Khorsabad: PLACE: site of Assyrian capital, Dur-Sharrukin. EPISODE 14, EPISODE 24

Leonard William King: PERSON: British assyriologist. EPISODE 8

King Ghazi Landscape Museum: THING: new museum in the Diwaniyah region of Iraq. EPISODE 13

Kish: PLACE: city in central Iraq. EPISODE 5. EPISODE 6. EPISODE 10

Gina Konstantopoulos: PERSON: guest on EPISODE 4

Fikri Kulakoglu: PERSON: Turkish archaeologist. Excavator of Kültepe. EPISODE 12

Kültepe: PLACE: Modern name for ancient Kanesh. Near the city of Kayseri, in the Cappadocia region of Turkey. EPISODE 12

kur: THING: the Netherworld. EPISODE 4

Kujunjik: PLACE: mound at Nineveh. EPISODE 13

Sevin Kutlu: PERSON: author of Turkish translation of the Gilgamesh Epic. EPISODE 16

Lagash: PLACE: site in southern Iraq. EPISODE 7

lake pigments: THING: pigments that you can get from plant matter. EPISODE 19

lama: CREATURE: a demon, usually benevolent. EPISODE 4

lamashtu: CREATURE: a demon, malevolent. EPISODE 4

Late Babylonian: TIME: 539 BC-100 AD

T.E. Lawrence: PERSON: “Lawrence of Arabia”. British officer, author. EPISODE 6, EPISODE 13

Laws of Eshnunna: THING: set of laws. Older then Hammurabi’s famous laws

lexical lists: THING: lists of words used in scribal education. Bit like dictionaries

Seton Lloyd: PERSON: British archaeologist. EPISODE 1

Luhushshu: THING: a demon. EPISODE 21

Luristan: PLACE: province in western Iran. Source of “Luristan bronzes”, looted from 1920s. EPISODE 6

lyre: THING: musical instrument a bit like a harp. EPISODE 3

Sait Maden: PERSON: author of Turkish translation of the Gilgamesh Epic. EPISODE 16

magus: THING: a member of a Persian priestly caste. EPISODE 8

Ahmad Hamid Majeed: PERSON: Iraqi assyriologist. EPISODE 1

Florence Malbran-Labat: PERSON: French assyriologist. EPISODE 8

Malgium: PLACE: city in central Iraq. EPISODE 5

Max Mallowan: PERSON: British archaeologist. EPISODE 13

Mami: DEITY: goddess who mixes clay from the steppe with blood from a god to form the first human being. Character in Atra(m)hasis Epic. EPISODE 9

maqam: THING: system of melodic modes used in Arabic music. EPISODE 3

Marad: PLACE: city in southern Iraq. EPISODE 5

Nicolò Marchetti: PERSON: Italian archaeologist. Guest on EPISODE 13

Marduk: DEITY: chief deity of the Babylonian pantheon. Deity who helped exorcists fight demons. EPISODE 4, EPISODE 21

Mari: PLACE: city in eastern Syria. EPISODE 3

Jean-Luc Martinez: PERSON: President Director of the Musée du Louvre. EPISODE 24

mashmashu: THING: “exorcist”. Someone who drive off demons and helped treat the problems they caused. EPISODE 4, EPISODE 21

Paolo Matthiae: PERSON: Italian archaeologist. EPISODE 13

Jana Matuszak: : PERSON: guest on EPISODE 2

Maverick: THING: app offering high resolution satellite images. EPISODE 22

Barry McGuire: PERSON: folk singer. Singer of 1965 protest song “on the eve of destruction”. EPISODE 13

ME: THING: Sumerian term describing everything that makes up the civilised world. See Tablet of Destinies. EPISODE 7

Menshed Mutlaq Menshed: PERSON: Iraqi assyriologist. EPISODE 1

Middle Assyrian: TIME: 1600-900 BC

Middle Babylonian: TIME: 1600-900 BC

Lin-Manuel Miranda: PERSON: Composer of Hamilton. EPISODE 15

Catherine Mittermayer: PERSON: Swiss assyriologist. EPISODE 21

Monument de Ninive: THING: lavish publication of the results of early French excavations. By Paul Emile Botta and Eugène Flandin (1849). EPISODE 15

Mosul: PLACE: city in northern Iraq. Location of ancient Nineveh. EPISODE 13, EPISODE 22

Mr. Murray: PERSON: Inspirational history teacher. EPISODE 15

Mr. Nicky’s World History Songs: THING: YouTube channel with history parody songs. EPISODE 15

Ahmad Kamil Muhammed: PERSON: Iraqi assyriologist. EPISODE 1. EPISODE 5

musicology: THING: the study of music. EPISODE 3

Nabu-zuqup-kenu: PERSON: a well-known Assyrian scholar from Kalhu. EPISODE 21

Nahrein Network: THING: research project based at UCL. EPISODE 6

Hassan Nadhem: PERSON: Minister of Culture, Iraq, 2020. EPISODE 13

namburbu: THING: a ritual intended to avoid predicted misfortune. EPISODE 21

Nebi Yunus: PLACE: mound at Nineveh, thought to be the burial place of the prophet Jonah. EPISODE 13

Nebuchadnezzar (II): PERSON: ruler of Babylon in 7th century BC. EPISODE 5

Neo-Assyrian: TIME: 900-600 BC

Neo-Babylonian: TIME: 900-600 BC

Daniel Nicky: PERSON: “Mr Nicky”. American educator and musician. Guest on EPISODE 15

Carsten Niebuhr: PERSON: German scholar who worked for a Danish expedition exploring and documenting the Middle East. EPISODE 8

Nineveh: PLACE: ancient capital of Assyria. Located in Mosul. EPISODE 13, EPISODE 21

Nineveh Medical Encyclopaedia: THING: a systematic compendium of Assyrian medical texts. EPISODE 17

Ningirsu: DEITY: Deity of Lagash. EPISODE 7

Ninkuzu: PERSON: “the lady is wise”. Fictional female character in Sumerian debate poem “Two Women B”. EPISODE 2

Ninurta: DEITY: Warrior god. Son of Enlil. Defeated Anzu. EPISODE 7

Nippur: PLACE: city in southern Iraq. Religious centre of Sumer. EPISODE 2, EPISODE 3, EPISODE 16, EPISODE 23

Nisaba: DEITY: goddess of writing. EPISODE 1

nish tuhri: THING: “raising of the heel”. Interval in Babylonian music. EPISODE 3

nishu: THING: an excerpt of a text. EPISODE 21

Edwin Norris: PERSON: British assyriologist. EPISODE 8

ochre: THING: A natural clay earth pigment. Used to make reds and yellows. EPISODE 19

Old Akkadian: TIME: 2300-2100 BC

Old Assyrian: TIME: 2000-1600 BC

Old Assyrian Colony Period: TIME: around the 19th century BC, in northern Iraq

Old Babylonian: TIME: 2000-1600 BC

Old Persian: THING: an ancient language of Iran. Also the name for a type of cuneiform writing used by the Persians. EPISODE 8

ophthalmologist: THING: A type of doctor specialising in eye medicine. EPISODE 17

Oracc: THING: web portal offering free access to cuneiform texts and explanatory information. EPISODE 2

organology: THING: the study of musical instruments. EPISODE 3

Ottoman period: TIME: period of Turkish rule of Iraq, 1534–1704 and 1831–1920. EPISODE 13

Ottoman Civil List: THING: Hazine-i Hassa (also called the Department of the Privy Purse in English) administered the investments and properties of the Ottoman emperor, which (during the reign of Abdülhamid II) included substantial lands around the vilayet of Baghdad, including Abu-Habbah/Sippar. Episode 16

Owning the Past: from Mesopotamia to Iraq: THING: temporary exhibition at the Ashmolean. EPISODE 6

Müge Özcan: PERSON: Curator in the cuneiform archive of the Istanbul Archaeological Museums. EPISODE 16

pandemonium: THING: a collective term for all the demons. EPISODE 4

Paraloid B 72: THING: A resin very common used for consolidation or bonding of archaeological objects. EPISODE 18

Saber Amiri Parian: PERSON: independent scholar based in Iran. Guest on EPISODE 8

pazuzu: CREATURE: a demon, benevolent. EPISODE 4

pentatonic system: THING: a system of music that uses 5 notes. EPISODE 3

Phoenicians: PEOPLE: culture originating on the eastern Mediterranean coast. EPISODE 24

Pi-Kasi: PLACE: city in southern Iraq. Ancient name of Tell Abu Antiq. EPISODE 5

pitu: THING: “opening”. Interval in Babylonian music. EPISODE 3

Sara Pizzimenti: PERSON: Italian archaeologist. EPISODE 13

Victor Place: PERSON: French archaeologist, excavator of Khorsabad. EPISODE 24

Le Plateau de Saclay: PLACE: cluster of important research institutions near Paris. EPISODE 24

Plato: PERSON: Greek philosopher. EPISODE 12

Karl Polanyi: PERSON: Austro-Hungarian economic historian. EPISODE 20

Polyvinyl Butyral 30: THING: a resin used to form strong bonds, to glue fragments of objects to each other. EPISODE 18

Pre-Sargonic: TIME: 2300-2100 BC

Prostration Hemerology: THING: ancient text setting out ritual instructions for certain times of the year. EPISODE 16

pyxides: THING: plural of pyxis, a small box. EPISODE 13

qablitu: THING: “middle”. The middle interval in Babylonian music. EPISODE 3

qudmu: THING: name of the first string in Babylonian. EPISODE 3

Karen Radner: PERSON: Austrian assyriologist. EPISODE 16

Rahmaniyah: PLACE: village on the site of Nineveh. EPISODE 13

Muzaffer Ramazanoğlu: PERSON: author of Turkish translation of the Gilgamesh Epic. EPISODE 16

Qais Rashid: PERSON: former Chair of SBAH, Iraq. EPISODE 13

Hormuzd Rassam: PERSON: Iraqi archaeologist. EPISODE 16

Henry Creswicke Rawlinson: PERSON: British assyriologist. Famous for his work deciphering cuneiform. EPISODE 8

Eleanor Robson: PERSON: British historian. Professor at UCL. Director of Nahrein Network. EPISODE 6

Elisa Roẞberger: PERSON: German archaeologist. Guest on EPISODE 9.

RTI imaging: THING: Reflectance Transformation Imaging. Technique for displaying images of objects under varying lighting. EPISODE 16

Zaid Ghazi Saadallah: PERSON: director of Mosul museum. EPISODE 24

Mohammed Sabri: PERSON: Iraqi archaeologist. EPISODE 13

Khalid Salim: PERSON: Iraqi assyriologist. EPISODE 13

Samsu-iluna: PERSON: Ruler of Babylon during the early second millennium BC. EPISODE 5

N.K. Sandars: PERSON: British archaeologist. EPISODE 16

Sanskrit: THING: a classical language of India. EPISODE 8

Sargon of Akkad: PERSON: ruler of Akkad and the Akkadian empire c. 2300 BC. EPISODE 10

Sargonic: TIME: 2300-2100 BC

Sassanian period: TIME: Period of rule by an Iranian dynasty, c. 224–651 AD. EPISODE 22

saturation: THING: Property of colour. How pure the hue is. EPISODE 19

SBAH: THING: the State Board of Antiquities and Heritage in Baghdad. EPISODE 22

Sealand Dynasty: THING: dynasty ruling in southern Iraq during the second millennium BC. EPISODE 5

Jean-Vincent Scheil: PERSON: French assyriologist. EPISODE 16

sebettu: CREATURE: group of 7 chaotic demons. EPISODE 4

second degree equation: THING: a kind of equation containing an element that is squared. EPISODE 11

Seleucid period: TIME: c. 312–64 BC. Period of rule by a Greek dynasty

Sennacherib: PERSON: King of Assyria. EPISODE 13

sexagesimal system: THING: a way of counting using 60s (instead of 10s like the modern decimal system). EPISODE 11

Shahnameh: THING: national epic of Iran. Written by Ferdowsi around 1000 AD. EPISODE 8

shalshu qatnu: THING: name of the third string in Babylonian. EPISODE 3

Shamash: DEITY: sun god, god of justice. EPISODE 1

shari’ raisiyah: THING: “presidential road” in the north of Mosul. EPISODE 13

shedu: CREATURE: a demon, usually benevolent. EPISODE 4

Dahlia Shehata: PERSON: German assyriologist. Guest on EPISODE 7.

sherds (also: shards): THING: Fragments of pottery. EPISODE 18

Shuanna: SITE: area of the city of Babylon. EPISODE 23

Shumma Alu: THING: an omen collection for predicting the future based on things that happened during daily life. EPISODE 21

Sin-abushu: PERSON: ruler of Eshnunna. EPISODE 1

Sin-sharra-ishkun: PERSON: King of Assyria. EPISODE 13

sinter crust: THING: A chemical sediment that can form over a period of time on the surfaces of archaeological objects. EPISODE 18

Sippar: PLACE: city in northern Babylonia. EPISODE 12, EPISODE 16, EPISODE 17

Skunha: PERSON: Scythian ruler defeated by Darius. EPISODE 8

Smerdis: PERSON: Persian prince who was impersonated by the usurper, Gaumata. EPISODE 8

Standard Babylonian: THING: Literary style of Akkadian. Commonly used in the first millennium BC. EPISODE 7

Stephen Simmons: PERSON: American assyriologist. EPISODE 1

Piotr Steinkeller: PERSON: American assyriologist. EPISODE 20

Michael Streck: PERSON: German assyriologist. EPISODE 12

Orhan Suda: PERSON: author of Turkish translation of the Gilgamesh Epic. EPISODE 16

Amir Suleiman: PERSON: Iraqi assyriologist. EPISODE 1, EPISODE 13

Sultantepe: PLACE: site in southern Turkey. EPISODE 7, EPISODE 17

Sumer: PLACE: southern part of southern Iraq

Sümeraslan: PERSON: “Lion (of) Sumer”. Surname of Ilgi Gerçek’s paternal grandmother. The name was acquired by her paternal great-grandfather, Ahmet Hamdi, who belonged to the Circassian community in Egypt that was resettled in various Ottoman territories in the 19th century. The name Sümer is common among the Circassian-Turkish communities, likely due to the idea—popular in the early Republic—that various Caucasian communities were related to the “Sumerians”). Episode 16

Susa: PLACE: important city in ancient Iran. Home to the Elamites. And one of the capitals of the Achaemenid Persian empire. EPISODE 7. EPISODE 8

Rayyane Tabet: PERSON: contemporary Lebanese artist. EPISODE 15

Tablet of Destinies: THING: A mythical tablet granting great power to whoever holds it. EPISODE 7

Taha Baqir: PERSON: Iraqi archaeologist and assyriologist. EPISODE 1

Tasli Geçit: PLACE: site in Turkey. EPISODE 13

Taxonomy: THING: The science of naming, describing and classifying . EPISODE 17

Tell Abu Antiq: PLACE: site in southern Iraq. Modern name for Pi-Kasi. EPISODE 5

Tell Asmar: PLACE: site in central Iraq. EPISODE 5

Tell Deheila: PLACE: site in southern Iraq. EPISODE 22

Tell Harmal: PLACE: site in central Iraq. EPISODE 1

Tell Jeghayman: PLACE: site in southern Iraq. EPISODE 5

Tell Khaysh: PLACE: site in southern Iraq. EPISODE 5

Tell Masbah: PLACE: site in southern Iraq. EPISODE 5

Tell Zeghaytan: PLACE: site in southern Iraq. EPISODE 5

terracotta: THING: object of an artistic type, made of clay and fired. Most importantly, 3D figurines and relief plaques. EPISODE 9

Ali Hazeem Thanoon: PERSON: chief of the Mosul branch of SBAH, 2020. EPISODE 13

The Evil Mouth: THING: Sumerian literary composition. EPISODE 2

Thing: THING: public assembly among the Vikings. EPISODE 12

Reginald Campbell Thompson: PERSON: British archaeologist and assyriologist. EPISODE 8, EPISODE 13, EPISODE 17

Tigris: RIVER: one of the two main rivers in Iraq. EPISODE 22

Tikrit: CITY: city in northern Iraq. EPISODE 22

Tilmen Höyük: PLACE: site in Turkey. EPISODE 13

tone: THING: Property of colour. How much white or black a colour contains. EPISODE 19

trachoma: THING: An infectious eye disease. EPISODE 17

Meghan Trainor: PERSON: popular singer. EPISODE 15

Gabriel Tranchand: PERSON: photographer on the French expedition to Asssyria, 1840s. EPISODE 24

Aaron Tugendhaft: PERSON: guest on EPISODE 14

TUPPI SHIMATI: THING: Akkadian “Tablet of Destinies”. See Tablet of Destinies. EPISODE 7

Turukku: PLACE: area in northern Iraq. EPISODE 5

Two Women A: THING: Sumerian literary composition. EPISODE 2

Two Women B: THING: Sumerian literary composition. EPISODE 2

Ubaid period: TIME: A prehistoric period in Mesopotamia, c. 6500–3800 BC. EPISODE 22

UD GAL NUN: THING: Difficult group of Sumerian from the middle of the third millennium BC. EPISODE 7

udug: CREATURE: a demon, and general name for demon. Usually malevolent. EPISODE 4

Ugarit: PLACE: city on the Syrian coast. EPISODE 3, EPISODE 17

Umma: PLACE: city in southern Iraqi. EPISODE 20

Ur: PLACE: city in southern Iraq. EPISODE 5. EPISODE 6. EPISODE 10

Ur III: TIME: 2100-2000 BC

Urartu: PLACE: Armenia/eastern Turkey

Uruk: PLACE: city in southern Iraq. EPISODE 5, EPISODE 11, EPISODE 21, EPISODE 23

Uruk IV: TIME: c. 3400-3100 BC

Uruk-Warka collection: THING: Collection in Heidelberg of objects from the ancient Middle East. EPISODE 18

Francois Vallat: PERSON: French assyriologist. EPISODE 8

Johannes (Jan) Jacobus van Dijk: PERSON: Dutch assyriologist. EPISODE 1

Vorderasiatisches Museum [Near East Museum]: THING: Museum in Berlin where a large collection of objects from the ancient Middle East are curated. EPISODE 18

waklum: Assyrian term for the chair of the assembly. EPISODE 12

West Point Military Academy: THING: United States Military Academy / West Point. US federal training facility for army officers. EPISODE 15

Franz Wiggermann: PERSON: Dutch assyriologist well-known for research on supernatural creatures. EPISODE 4

Woman Perfecting Evil: THING: Sumerian literary composition. EPISODE 2

Tony Wilkinson: PERSON: British archaeologist. Specialist in landscape archaeology. EPISODE 5, EPISODE 22

Sir Leonard Woolley: PERSON: British archaeologist. Famous as the excavator of Ur. EPISODE 12

Yahrurum shaplum: PLACE: “lower Yahrurum”. Ancient province in southern Iraq. Home to the city of Pi-Kasi. EPISODE 5

zaluzi: THING: type of Hurrian musical work. EPISODE 3

Zipang: THING: group of storytellers bringing ancient Iraqi stories to life for modern audiences, in English, Arabic and Kurdish. EPISODE 2